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PAST RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS
Yak Anatomy
1.
Inter-institutional collaborative study on comparative anatomy of zebu, mithun and yak has been completed
Yak Genetics
1.

Polymorphism in 3´ UTR of Nramp1 gene was found to be associated with resistance to brucellosis in yak. Frequencies of AA genotype and A allele were quite higher in brucellaseronegative (resistant) group (P<0.001) while frequencies of BB genotype and B allele were higher in seropositive (susceptible) group (P<0.05).

2.
An indication that 3´ UTR of Nramp1 gene may be associated with the occurrence of Chlamydophilaabortus infection in yak was derived based on the findings that within the seropositive group the frequency of BB genotype was significantly higher (P<0.001) and frequency of AB genotype was significantly lower with no individual of AA genotype.
3.
An easy, fast and cost effective technique of PCR followed by simple agarose gel electrophoresis was developed for genotyping yak at 3´UTR locus of Nramp1 gene which successfully replace the cumbersome SSCP-PAGE practiced in cattle and buffalo.
4.

Polymorphisms in coding sequence of TLR genes were reported in yak which is considered to be genetically less diversified. Two missense mutations in TLR2 genes were found (Val211Ile) and (Cys226Tyr). Six SNPs including two missense mutations- (Val507Ile and Val544Ile) were detected in TLR6 gene.

5.

The low-complexity region was not predictable for TLR 2 in yak (rare genotype) which encodes Ile at amino acid position 211 when SMART prediction of protein domain architecture was attempted.

 
 
 
 
6.

A simple reliable PCR-RFLP assay to identify male mediated introgression based on mutation in SRY gene was developed for identification of paternal origin of yak hybrids.

7.
An association between defensin genotypes with somatic cell count in yaks and cattle was observed.
8.
A RAPD fingerprinting technique useful for parentage detection of species hybrids and probing of meat adulteration was developed. RAPD markers able to distinguish different bovine species namely yak, mithun, cattle (taurine and indicine) and river buffalo were identified as well as the magnitudes of genetic relatedness among the species were estimated. RAPD analysis on five bovine species showed that yak shares highest genetic similarity with mithun (42%) followed by exotic cattle (27%), indicine cattle (29%) and buffalo (16%).
9.
An AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) allele was found with higher (P?0.05) frequency in the group of yaks with higher adult body. Frequency of that marker allele in the elite group was 78 % in male but only 66% in the female group. The overall frequency in the male and female groups was as 0.28 and 0.12, respectively.
10.
Based on microsatellite (30 loci and RAPD (10 primers) assay it was concluded that yaks of geographically isolated pockets and of distinct morphological types of India do not differ significantly on evolutionary scale.
11.
Studies on DNA polymorphism of leptin gene revealed a rare polymorphism at an additional Sau3AI restriction site in yaks.
12.
PCR-RFLP studies of TSPY/RSA1 in yak and buffalo produced fragments of 36,112, and 870bp; cattle produced fragments of 36,112,271 and 599bp fragments while cattle and yak hybrids produced cattle type patterns. SRY/Btr studies showed monomorphism in all the three species studied.
13.
Studies were conducted to investigate the polymorphisms in the candidate genes viz Growth Hormone (GH) gene, Growth Hormone Receptor gene and Insulin Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) gene. The studies indicated that the polymorphism in IGF-1 is associated with birth weight.
14.
Indian yaks were categorized into five morphological types: Common, Bisonian, Bare-back, Hairy-forehead and White yak. Nine different coat color variations and nine horn patterns have been recorded.
15.
Detailed cytogenetic studies on pure yak and yak X hill cattle hybrids have been carried out and karyotypes and idiograms have been prepared
16.
Genetic and phenotypic parameters of body weight at different was estimated for the first time in Indian yaks. It was found that weight at 6-month of age would be the best criteria of selection for desired body weight in yaks.
 
Yak Nutrition
1.
Complete feed blocks are being prepared with nonconventional feed stuff (maize stover); concentrate feed and binding materials (molasses) in the ratio of 60:37:3.
2.
Nutritional intervention in terms of mineral supplementation resulted in decreased age at puberty (from 3.5 to 4.5 years to 1.5 to 2.5 years), increased adult body weight (female: from 150-200 kg to 250-350 kg and male: from 250-300 to 450-550 kg), and better reproductive efficiency
3.
Samples of soil, feeds, fodders, tree leaves, hair, and blood had been collected from some parts of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim and processed. The analysis for different nutrients viz. CP, EE, CF, NFE, ADF, NDF, Total ash etc. had been done. Samples collected were utilized for analysis of mineral profile to know the mineral deficiency which reportedly reflects in low productive and reproductive performance of livestock in this region.
4.
In an effort to test feasibility of introducing exotic fodder in the farm, seeds of 51 varieties were obtained. Out of these, only five varieties of Dactylisglomerata (var, Amba, Sparta and Porto) and Phleumpratense (Barliza and Goliath) became successful. Extensive programme had been launched to propagate all these varieties at Nyukmadung farm complex.
5.
Nine varieties of Salyx were obtained from the RRL (CSIR), Jammu in an effort to afforest the farm areas (2750 m above msl) at Nyukmadung and the office premises at Dirang campus (1500 m a msl). Out of the nine, only three varieties viz., Salyxbabylonica, Salyxhumboltiana and Salyxpurpurea are doing well at 1500 m above msl.
6.
Utilization of coarse roughages viz., local dry grass, paddy straw and maize silage was studied in yaks during peak winter. The nutrient utilization in paddy straw was recorded to be higher. The DCP and TDN contents in the three roughages were 0.78 and 48.7; 0.77 and 61.9 and 4.99 and 67.5 kg per 100 kg DM respectively for local dry grass, paddy straw and maize silage.
7.
The chemical composition and nutritive value of locally available finger millet straw and maize kadbi have also been studied. The DCP and TDN contents of finger millet straw were 1.3 and 50.5 kg per 100 kg DM respectively whereas; the DCP and TDN contents of maize kadbi were 0.52 and 63.5 kg/100 kg DM.
8.
Effect of urea supplementation at different levels, over a basal diet of finger millet straw, in yaks on DM intake and nutrient utilization was studied. There was no significant effect on DM intake and DM digestibility co-efficients. However, TDN and DCP contents significantly increased with the increase in level of urea supplementation.
9.
The nutritive value of salyx tree fodder had been studied in yaks. The chemical composition of salyx tree leaves in terms of DM, EE, CP, NDF, ADF, TA and TCAO were 90.1, 2.3, 13.2, 51.2, 31.4, 9.9 and 74.6 percent respectively. The DCP and TDN contents were 7.06 and 58.9 kg/100 kg DM.
10.
Samples of locally available tree fodder have been collected, identified and analyzed for different nutritional parameters. All these tree fodder often fed to the yaks at Nyukmadung farm and found to be palatable to yaks. Samples of sometime other locally available feed stuff such as maize grain, paddy straw, millet straw, green oat, local dry grass etc have also been analyzed for different nutritional parameters.
11.
Mineral composition of twelve different tree leaves in terms of Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Fe, Co, Mn and Zn has also been studied. Most of the tree fodders were found to be rich source of Ca, Mg, K, Fe, and Mn. However, cobalt and copper contents were comparatively lower in most of the tree fodder.
12.
Soil, pasture and hair samples were collected from Nyukmadung Farm and some other yak pockets. The mineral profile in yak blood and milk has been studied. From the data available so far, the deficiency of copper and Mn in yak blood were obvious. Mn wasalso not detectable in yak milk.
13.
The chemical composition of yak milk was studied. The average fat, protein, total solid and total ash content was 7.87±0.84, 4.25±0.28, 18.77±0.77 and 0.87±0.09 percent respectively.
14.
Nine varieties of indigenous tree fodders have been identified and their proximate analysis has been done. Tannin and phenolic component as well as mineral composition in this fodder have also been estimated. All thesefodder have been found palatable to yaks.
15.
The preliminary findings showed that concentrate supplementation in feed have a significant effect on average daily weight gain than that of control group in yaks.
16.
Study on elemental concentration through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer has detected Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, Cobalt, Manganese and Iron in yak hair, and Potassium, Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium, Iron, Zinc, Copper andManganese in raw yak meat. However, Cobalt was undetectable in yak meat.
17.
Study conducted on growing yak calves fed with paddy straw based Complete Feed Block revealed improved economic traits with significantly higher blood biochemical profiles like glucose, protein and algomin in yaks maintain on CFB based diets compared to free grazing yaks during winter.
18.
Compensatory growth with higher plane of nutrition (100% DCP and 110% TDN as per NRC,1989 standard) could be achieve among the experimental animals losses their body weight due to low plane of nutrition.
19.
Compensatory growth phenomenon and beneficial effect of Complete Feed Block (CFB) on growth performance on yak calves were also observed during winter.
20.
Feeding trial on different plane of nutrition observe that average daily gain in body weight and feed conversion efficiency was the highest in animal fed with High Protein-High Energy followed by Low Protein-High Energy, High Protein-Low Energy and Low protein Low Energy.
21.
On the basis of Proximate analysis and in-vitro digestibility maize was found is the most potential fodder for Silage preparation in yak tracks of Arunachal Pradesh.
22.
Ante-partum administration of Vitamin E and Selenium in Yak was found to reduce the time of placental expulsion, Calving abnormalities, increase neonatal birth weight and reduce calf mortality compare to untreated yaks.
23.
A total of fifty one fibre degrading bacteria were isolated from rumen liquor of yak and their polysaccharide degrading enzyme activities were studied.
 
Yak Physiology and Reproduction
1.
Ovsynch treatment with Norprolac, induced better estrus symptoms per animal, higher LH peak concentration, longer duration of LH surge and higher conception rate in Ovsynch plus Norprolac treated animals compared to animals treated with Ovsynch alone which indicates the opportunity for practical application of the Ovsynch plus Norprolac protocol for TAI in yaks during non-breeding seasons.
2.
First yak calf born through ETT: one female calf, named MISMO took birth from a recipient yak cow on 27th June, 2005. This success indicated the prospects of implementing ETT in ex-situ conservation of yaks.
3.
Efficacy of GnRH-PGF2?-ECP protocol for induction of estrus synchronization of ovulation and fixed time artificial insemination in anestrus yaks was studied which revealed that this protocol can be successfully followed by fix time artificial insemination used to induce and synchronise estrus in anestrous yaks.
4.
Studies on effective dose of norprolac for prolactin inhibition revealed that administration of norprolac @ 7.5mg/animal was suitable for prolactin suppression up to 28 hours.
5.
Studies on endocrine status during growth revealed that growth rates were positively correlated with plasma GH and GH per 100 kg body weight but later was found to be a better indicator of growth.
6.
Efficacy of heatsynch protocol for induction of estrus and synchronization of ovulation in anestrus yaks was studied which revealed that heatsynch can be successfully utilized for induction of estrus in anestrus yaks in order to cut short the long postpartum interval. Ovulation following heatsynch protocol was found to be well synchronized in yaks and the application of fixed time AI in this species could be successful.
7.
Plasma progesterone profile from individual yaks subjected to superovulatory treatment suggested that a poor superovulatory response in terms of embryo recovery in certain animals was caused by the lysis of corpora lutea before flushing which was carried out 7 days after superovulatory estrus. It is suggested that flushing 5 days post superovulatory estrus could improve the superovulatory response in this species.
8.
Development and validation of simple, direct and sensitive enzyme immuno assay procedure for the estimation of protein and steroid hormones viz. LH, GH, Prolactin, Oxytocin, Oestradiol 17?, total estrogen, etc. have been accomplished following second anitibody coating and biotin streptavidin amplification technique.
9.
Investigation of physiological parameters including haematological, bio-chemical, energy substrates, minerals and hormones have been accomplished during different stage of growth, production and reproduction.
10.
Synchronization of estrus and ovulation and timed artificial insemination has been successfully accomplished using recent biotechnological tools.
11.
Inductions of estrus and ovulation following ovsynch and heatsynch protocols have been accomplished.
12.
Cyclicity determination has been achieved utilizing plasma progesterone as a marker.
13.
Reference values for normal hematological data were generated in adult male, adult female, calves, pregnant and lactating females. Several haemato-biochemical parameters, serum concentration of different minerals and profile of different reproductive hormones were studied during estrous cycle, pregnancy, parturition, lactation and anoestrus. The reason behind the cause of anoestrus was also evaluated.
14.
Lactation curve of milk yield and a few milk constituents were determined.
15.
Sexual behavior of yak bull during usage of artificial vagina and natural mating was studied.
16.
Seminal characteristics in different season (summer and winter) were studied. Study on semen evaluation revealed seminal attributes akin to that of cattle.
17.
It was determined that estrogen and progesterone in a ratio of 1:3.5 should be applied in yaks for successful induction of lactation. Effect of induced lactation on different blood biochemical parameters was studied.
18.
Yaks were synchronized into estrus with the administration of PGF2? analogue.
19.
The body weight and measurement were recorded in three groups of male yaks at different ages to find out the relationship of body weight with scrotal circumference, scrotal diameter and hanging length of the scrotum. Examination of external male genitalia was performed manually and shape, size etc. were recorded.
20.
Endocrine profile in female yaks during various stages of reproduction has been studied. Induction of estrus has been studied by using PGF2?.
21.
Seminological studies on fresh and extended yak semen have been conducted.
22.
Progesterone impregnated vaginal sponge developed by CSWRI along with 300 I.U. of PMSG was found effective for synchronization of oestrus in yak with 60% conception rate and production of calves.
23.
Protocol for in vitro production of yak and yak-cattle hybrid embryos has been standardized.
24.
Competitive enzyme immunoassay has been standardized for detection of progesterone in blood plasma of yak with detection limit of 0.4ng/ml during oestrusto 12.5 ng/ml during luteal phase
25.
Ultrasound study indicated that post-partum cyclicity is initiated within 150 days of calving in 70% yaks with presence of dominant follicle and subsequent development of CL.
26.
Ultrasound guided ovum pick up (OPU) technique has been standardized for yak and hill cattle for retrieving oocytes for in vitro embryo production (IVEP), and embryos could be produced up to the stage of blastocyst; non-surgical transfer of such cryopreserved-thawed embryo resulted in production of first test tube yak calf, named NORGYAl, on 15th July, 2013 at Nyukmadung farm of NRC on Yak.
   
Yak Production and Management
1.
First yak calf and hybrid calf born through AI: Yak cow (bree) no. 171, inseminated by using yak frozen semen delivered a healthy female calf (no. 251, body weight at birth 11.5 kg) at Nyukmadung Yak Farm on August 17th, 2006. One Jersey cow, inseminated by using frozen yak semen delivered a healthy female hybrid calf (body weight at birth 18.5 kg) on March 26th, 2007.
2.
Artificial insemination in yak with yak frozen semen: the training of yak males for semen collection has been standardized.
3.
Studies on effect of age on semen characteristics revealed that age has got significant effect on semen characteristics in yak bulls and they produce better quality semen from 3.5 years of age.
4.
Studies on growth pattern of yaks under semi-range system of rearing revealed that yaks reared in such system had higher growth rate, attained mature body weight earlier (4 years vs. 5-6 years), relatively minimized age at first calving, better productive and reproductive performances compared to yaks reared in field conditions.
5.
Seasonal variation in the body weight changes of adult yaks have been analyzed and it was found that when there is rise in environmental temperature above 150C , animals suffered from heat stress along with loss of body weight.
6.
Studies on the estrus activity pattern in yaks reared in semi range system of management revealed that maximum number of yaks came to heat during the months of October to January.

7.

 

The growth performance of castrated and non-castrated male yaks have been studied for one year and the results obtained indicated that the castration has no adverse effect on the body weight gain, dry matter intake or nutrient digestibility of growing male yaks.
8.
The effect of some non-genetic factors like sex and season of calving on the birth weight of the yak calves were studied which revealed that the birth weight of the yak calves was significantly affected by the month of calving, with maximum birth weight noticed in the month of June and declining thereafter.
9.
Yak is used as pack animals by the highlanders. Therefore, the programme was taken to assess carrying capacity of yaks with different loads ranging from 10-35% of their body weight. From this study this could be concluded that, yaks have the potential to carry load upto 15% of their body weight and can walk at a stretch with a speed of 4-6 km/h. Body temperature was increased after carrying the load but there was no difference in body temperature among the animals carrying varying percentage of loads.
 
Yak Health
1.
A fast and reliable PCR assay was developed for molecular diagnosis of B. bigemina in yak and its hybrids using primers specific for small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence.
2.
The study was conducted to explore the immuno-response in yaks following standard dose of strain 19 vaccines which revealed that protective antibody level persists up to 210 days.
3.
Amblyomma genus of tick has been identified. Some of the ticks have been identified up to species level including Boophilusmicroplus .
4.
Warble infection in yak due to Hypodermalineatum has been recorded.
5.
The Ixodid tick Ixodescookei from yak has been recorded for the first time from yak and its hybrids in Indian sub-continent.
6.
Warble infection due to Hypodermabovis has been recorded.
7.
PCR for diagnosis of Babesiabigemina has been standardized.
8.
Studies on exploring the mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by Senecio (Pyrrolizidine) alkaloids in yak revealed that oxidative damage induced by Senecio may be attributed to its toxicity.
9.
Senecio induced pro-inflammatory, oxidative and pro-apoptotic signaling was explored in murine macrophage cell line.
10.
A new record of Parafilariabovicola has been identified from the two adult yaks at Nyukmadung Farm.
11.
The prevalence of Neoascariosis in newly born calves at farm was recorded to be an emerging problem.
12.
Babesiabovis has been recorded first time in this centre from yak and its crossbreds and treated with berenil, at yak rearing pocket of Sange Jamba near Barsi village in Mandala phudung area during off-campus health programme.
13.
Eight (8) major flies have been identified from yak habitats namely, Musca, Stomoxys, Tabanus, Sarcophaga, Lucilia, Calliphora, Chrysomyia and Simulium. Damalinia is the only lice identified from yak. Four genera of ticks namely Boophilus, Haemaphysalis, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus have been identified in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam from yak and other animals. Multi-parasitic infections by strongyles, ascarids, hookworms, trichuris, hydatid cysts were recorded.
14.
Pneumonia, cystic infection in lungs, loss of appetite, ascariosis, calf scour, conjunctivitis, corneal opacity, congenital hoof defect, still birth, various parasitic and bacterial infections, retention of placenta, poisoning from plant alkaloid (Scenecio sp.) and nonspecific GI disorders are some of the major diseases recorded in yaks in Arunachal Pradesh. It was observed that Neoascarisvitulorum is an emerging problem especially in young calves.
15.
Bacterial isolates like Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Salmonella, Klebsiella and Clostridium were identified from yak calves. The percentage of different bacterial genera has been recorded.
16.
Survey in various yak tracts revealed presence of Neoascarisvitullorum, Trichurisovis, Fasciola sp., Strongyles, Moneizia sp. and coccidialoocysts in faeces of yaks as well as during Post Mortem examination. Survey also recorded prevalence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Hemorrhagic Septicaemia, Black Quarter, Tuberculosis, Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Brucellosis in yaks.
17.
Dose specificity for therapeutic purposes on enrofloxacin in yak has been determined by Pharmacokinetic studies. The study also generated some other pharmacokinetic data such as elimination half-life (t½), AUC, MRT, K, ClB, Vd of the drug in yaks.
18.
Molecular characterization of terrestrial leech of Arunachal Pradesh has been done based on mitochondrial gem sequence information.
   
Yak Product Technology
1.
HPLC method for estimation of vitamin-E (?-tocopherol) in yak meat and milk Standardized.
2.
Vitamin A concentration in various vital organs of yak has been estimated. The level of Vitamin A content in the liver of yak was found to be 45,016±910 I.U./100g (41,107 to 47,846) which is almost similar to that of ox liver but lower than that of cattle raised on pasture. In spleen, heart and lung, Vitamin A was non-detectable while in kidney, Vit. A wasfound in traces.
3.
Experimental trial has been conducted to prepare yak milk powder from yak milk by using Eyela Spray Drier (SD-1000).
4.
A small milk-processing unit was established and utilized to develop process technologies for making yak milk Paneer, Dahi, Lassi, Flavoured milk, Whey drink, Gulabjamun, Burfi and Kalakand.
5.
To extend the medicinal effect of Red Rhododendron (RDR) flower through food chain, LPT section developed product having different ratio of RDR juice and milk solids. RDR juice based lassi, whey drink and Dahi was standardized and consumer preference studies conducted.
6.
The process technology for the utilization of Whey-a by-product of churpi making has been developed.
7.
Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 and Vitamin E estimations in yak meat through HPLC technique using UV detector have been completed, whereas the others (Vitamin B6, Vitamin A, Vitamin K etc.) are in progress.
8.
Proximate composition in terms of moisture, protein, fat and ash in raw yak meat from different age groups was assessed and found to be 74.82-78.15, 19.10-22.50, 1.20-1.97 and 0.90-1.16 percent respectively. Total microbial load in raw yak meat was found to be 2.4x105 cfu per gram.
9.
Sausage, a value added product was prepared from yak meat by incorporating pork meat and fat (yak meat 60%, pork 20% and pork fat 20%). The product had an overall acceptability of 8 of 9-point hedonic scale in terms of flavour, texture, juiciness and tenderness as judged by a trained panelist. The product showed good market potential in the local areas.
10.
Study on elemental concentration through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer has detected Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium Iron, Zinc, Copper and Manganese in raw yak meat and in some vital organs. Cobalt was undetectable in both the cases.
11.
Certain physico-chemical properties of yak meat viz. pH, Water Holding Capacity, Muscle Fibre Diameter and Myoglobin content were evaluated.
12.
Yields of various wholesale cuts, carcass weight and dressing percentage of yak carcass were evaluated. The dressing percentage of yaks of below 5 years of age group (55.4%) was found to be nearly 14% higher than that of over 10 years age group (46.8%). The suitable age for slaughter thus was fitted to 3.5- 4.5 years.
13.
Dressing percentage of yak meat was found to be in the range of 48.6 to 55.4% depending upon age of the yak.
14.
Certain physico-chemical properties of yak meat viz. pH, Water Holding Capacity, MFD and myoglobin content have been studied.
15.
Various products viz. Gulabjamun, Paneer, Dahi, Flavoured drinks and Burfi were prepared using yak milk standardized with Skim Milk Powder.
16.
Mineral content in different yak milk products had been estimated.

Extension Programmes
1.
A KrishiVigyan Kendra earmarked for Lohit District, Arunachal Pradesh under the administration of NRCY was inaugurated on March 26th, 2007 at Arunachal PaliVidyapith, Chongkham.
2.
Prepared a documentary on "NRC Yak at a Glance", and got released at North East Agri. Expo 2006 held at Dimapur, Nagaland w.e.f. 27th to 31st March'2006.
3.
This Centre is providing expert advice for proper managemental practices of yak rearing and also for other animals in the adjoining villages, as per the need of the villagers/farmers since its establishment.
4.
Therapeutic as well as preventive measures in yak and other animals are being provided. Under this programme, regular vaccination with Foot-and-Mouth Disease vaccine is being done.
5.
This institute has established a small yak milk processing unit for production and marketing of yak milk products (dahi, paneer, lassi and pineapple flavoured whey beverage). The unit is also used for training of yak herdsmen and women.
6.
Under NATP on Household Food and Nutritional Security for Tribal, Backward and Hilly areas, six-week-old Vanaraja birds have been distributed among tribal beneficiaries from different villages. Monitoring of performances of the Vanaraja birds distributed among the beneficiaries is being done regularly.
7.
Four leaflets in Hindi were prepared on various aspects of yak health and management, and distributed to the Gaonbuddas of yak inhabited villages.
8.
A brief introduction about the activities of the centre was also publicized through leaflets made in Hindi and Monpa dialects.
9.
Preliminary survey in Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu andKashmir revealed conditions of yak husbandry akin to that of Arunachal Pradesh.
10.
On- and Off-Campus Farmers' Training Programmes have been conducted in yak inhabited states of India such as Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh and J andK (Ladakh and Kargil Autonomous Hill Development Councils).
11.
Extension-cum-treatment camp was held at Lubrang and Broksarthang on 8th May, 2012. A total of 120 yaks were treated for ecto and endo parasitic infection, anorexia, skin infestation, weakness, digestive disorder respiratory problem and wound. Yak farmers (Brokpa) were also briefed about scientific managerial practices and technology developed by the institute like complete feed block (CFB) and highland pasture development. They were also made aware of beneficial effect artificial insemination (AI).
12.
Collaborative mass vaccination-cum-treatment camp for yak and yak hybrid was organized on 30th October, 2012 held at ShandingThung area in collaboration with Department of A.H., Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 10 brokpa families were benefited by mass vaccination and treatment of 434 animals.
13.
Health-cum-extension camp was held on 31st October, 2012 was held at Sela. A total of 16 brokpa families participated in the camp and 385 pure yaks was treated.
14.
Collaborative mass vaccination-cum-treatment camp with Department of A.H., Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh for yak and yak hybrid was organized on 22nd November, 2012 at Lagam and Chander area. In this camp 7 brokpa families were covered and 305 yak and yak-cattle hybrid were treated.
15.
A scientist-farmers interaction was organized on 23rd January, 2013 at NRC-Yak, Dirang. A total of 20 farmers actively participated in the interaction. Farmers were made aware of male sterility, female infertility, nutritional management and deworming schedule of neonatal yak calves. Farmers demonstrated indigenous technology for preparation of yak milk and wool products. Based on their performance and quality of products farmers were given certificate of merit and cash prize.
16.
A treatment-cum-vaccination camp was held on 24th January, 2013 at Misopsa and Mandalaphudung. A total of 250 yaks were given vaccination against FMD. A total 30 yaks were treated for parasites, anorexia, vitamin deficiency, digestive disorder and respiratory problems. Farmers were also given acaracidal agents to control heamoprotozoan infection.
17.
Scientists and technical officers organized exhibition stall on 15th August, 2012 and 26th January, 2013 at St. Lopon Stadium, Dirang which was organized by local administration. In the exhibition stall value added products developed by this institute was displayed.
18.
Two days training programme-cum-workshop was organized for brokpas on Scientific Yak Farming from 28th to 29th January, 2013. A total of 14 farmers actively participated in the workshop.
19.
Scientists and technical officers actively participated in the occasion of Know Your Army Mela on 25th to 26th February, 2013 at St. Lopon Stadium, Dirang. In the exhibition stall value added products developed by this institute was displayed.
20.
Training programme on scientific feeding of high altitude animals for better production was organized on 15th March, 2013 at Tawang under AICRP-TSP project. A total of 10 farmers participated in the training programme.
21.
A three day's training programme for veterinary officers of Arunachal Pradesh was organized from 21st to 23rd March, 2013. A total of 10 veterinarians attended the training programme on Recent Advances in Artificial Insemination.
22.
A two day's training programme was organised on first aid management of yak and brokpa from 28th to 29th March, 2013. A total of 44 yak farmers participated in the programme. Farmers were given first aid boxes both for them and their animals.

   
   
   
HONOURS AND AWARDS
ICAR Award
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Award
Dr. SamiranBandyopadhyay, Dr. K KBaruah and Dr. T K Biswas received the prestigious Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Award, 2011 for Outstanding Research in Tribal Farming Systems
Dr. K.P. Ramesha (Sr. Scientist, AGB) and Dr. M. Sarkar (Sr. Scientist, Animal Physiology) received the prestigious Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Award (Animal Sciences) for the biennium 2004-2005 awarded by Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi on 18th August, 2006 at NAAS Complex, New Delhi.
Jawaharlal Nehru Award
Dr. M. Sarkar, Sr.Scientist received Jawaharlal Nehru Award for outstanding Post Graduate Agricultural Research 2005.
NAAS Award
Dr. A. K. Bera, Scientist (SS) has been selected as an associate of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS), New Delhi for five years from January, 2013 to December, 2017
Dr. M. Sarkar, Sr. Scientist had been selected as the Associate Fellow of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences on 5th June, 2006.
NAVS Award
Dr. K.P. Ramesha and Dr. M. Sarkar granted Membership of the National Academy of Veterinary Sciences in 2007.
Professional Society Award
Dr A. K. Bera, Scientist (SS) was awarded as Achievers- 2012 by Society for Advancement of Human and Nature (SADHNA), Solan, Himachal Pradesh for his significant research contribution in the field of Veterinary and Animal sciences.
Dr. B.C. Saravanan, Scientist (Veterinary Parasitology), received the Best Poster Presentation award for the poster "Identification of Theileriaannulata by DNA Hybridization Using a Non-Radioactive Probe Generated by Arbitrary Primer PCR" presented during the National Symposium on "Strengths, Challenges and Opportunities in Veterinary Parasitology" and XVII National Congress of Veterinary Parasitology held at Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Puducherry during November 15-17, 2006.
 
CSIR Award for S&T Innovations for Rural Development for year 2007
Dr. M. Bhattacharya, Dr. M. K. Ghosh and Dr. M. Sarkar received this prestigious award for "Improvement of Sustainable Yak Husbandry Practices in Himalayan Region" presented by the Hon'ble Prime Minister of India Dr. Manmohan Singh on December 20, 2008.
 
 
  
   
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